洛阳环球雅思培训学校
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洛阳雅思培训学校:雅思写作中句法结构多样性技巧!

无论是从历年雅思写作的平均分,还是大多数洛阳雅思培训学校同学备考雅思的过程,都反应出中国考生在雅思写作上的薄弱,在实际教学中,笔者发现学生的薄弱在语言上较为明显,尤其是在句法的灵活多样型上。考官评分标准中最后一项GRA (grammatical range and accuracy),明确考察的是洛阳雅思培训学校学生写英语句子多样性和准确性的能力,即测试洛阳雅思培训学校考生简单句和复杂句的综合运用能力。而中国考生也知道句式表达要多样性,但很难参透具体如何操作才能让自己的句子丰富多样,结果是普遍句式比较单一,写到复杂结构时往往就是堆斥各种从句,似乎除了从句再无其它复杂结构可写。事实上,剑桥考官的范文中,复杂句的数量寥寥可数,很多时候都是把简单句进行了华丽的包装,下面笔者就总结出这些“good answers中的低调的高分语法结构,即从range的角度谈谈雅思写作中句法结构的多样性。

1.状语前置

所谓状语前置就是把状语(副词,介词短语,分词,不定式)放到句首。考官会频繁使用这种语法结构,而很多考生却没有意识,这种句式通过一堆长句子中出现一个小短语,可以让句子产生长短结合的紧凑感,实例如下:

1)Unfortunately, professionals from otherfields who make a much greater contributions to human society, are paid so muchless that it is hard to disagree with the statement.

2)Obviously, education systems are based onthe belief that all children can effectively be taught to acquire differentskills.

3)Like self-awareness,this is also very difficult to achieve, but I think these are the two factorsthat may be most important for achieving happiness.

4)As a result of mediaattention, sports professionals in my country have become stars and celebrities.

5)With the politicalwill, such measures could really reduce the amount of rubbish we produce.

6)Struggling inpoverty, people in these countries believe international aid is essential andshould be continued.

7)To do this, we needto improve the choice of public transport services available to individuals.

8)To become successful,more skills and dedication are required.

2.句中插入短语

和状语前置类似,长句子中间插入一个小短语,可以让句子读起来更轻松灵活。考官实例如下:

1)This will affect the job market, which, afterall, is a key target in any economic plan.

2)Sports stars and pop stars,for example, are soon replaced by the neat younger, more energetic generation.

3)So overall, I believethat, attending schools from a young age is good for most children.

4)Universities, when itis functioning well, should offer both theoretical knowledge as well asprofessional training.

3.倒装句

这种语法现象考生都学过,但往往在作文中忘记或没有意识使用。先看两个例子:

1)Parents should spend time on theirchildren. They should also communicate with them.

2) We can never losesight of the significance of education.

这两个句子没有任何错误,但都很单调平淡,如果使用倒装,效果就不一样了。

第一句可以用not only /but also 句型来改写成倒装句:Not only should parents spent time on their children, they are alsoadvised to interact with them.

第二句可以否定词提前,强调突出“不可忽视”。On no account/by nomeans/ in no way/never can we lose sight of the significance of education.

考官范文中的倒装例子并不多,主要体现在以下几种情况中:

1)Only in this way can this problem beeffectively solved.

2)We can see that not only are there verylarge differences between these economies, but that these gaps are widening.

3)Strange as it may seem, parents attention sometimeshinders studentsacademic development

4)Equally important to success in learning a foreignlanguage is constant attention to details.

考生在平时的语言积累和写作练习中,可以多模仿这几种固定句式,在文章中穿插1-2句倒装句。

4.强调句:

强调句的句式框架结构为It is+(被强调的成分) that/who+(句子剩余成分), 类似于中文的“正是导致了…”的意思。例如,考官范文中的例句:

1)It is the interaction of the two thatshapes a person personality and dictates how that personalitydevelops.

2)It is only those who reach the very top of theirprofession who can get these huge salaries.

强调句式是考生比较难把握的一种句型,容易和it引导的形式主语相混淆,其实我们可以通过去掉It is that/It iswho的框架看剩下的是否是一个完整的句子来判断强调句写的是否正确。

考生可以以通过以上几种句式结构的介绍,搭配简单句去使用,让句式灵活多变,例如:“二十世纪末科技的繁荣,人们开始广泛使用电脑”,这句话可以分别用以上介绍的句式结构来变化表达法,使句子做到丰富多变,不再单一重复:

1)witness 句型

Thelate 20th century witnessed the prosperity in science and technology, thusgiving rise to the wide application of computers.

2) With 结构状语前置

With the prosperityin science and technology in the late 20th century, computers were widelyapplied.

3) 倒装句

So flourishing wasthe science and technology in the late 20th century that computers were widelyapplied in various fronts.

4) 强调句

Itwas the prosperity in science and technology in the late 20th century that gaverise to the wide application of computers.

5.平行结构

严格来讲,平行结构并不属于特殊句式,而是英语语法的规范要求,但是由于遵守这个基本语法规则的中国考生太少了,平行结构也升级成了一种“特殊句式”。这种结构的使用在考官范文里出现较多,最常见的形式是在表示并列关系的连接词,例如 and/or等的前后两侧用名词对名词,形容词对形容词,动词不定式对动词不定式,分词短语对分词短语,从句对从句比如:

1)Satisfaction is alsoincreased by a sense of responsibility for and loyal to a team.

2) Even when childrenuse a computer for other purposes, such as getting information or emailingfriends, it is no substitute for human interaction.

3)Some essays are hardto understand not because they are long but because they are obscure.

4)They will certainlybe the first th help children learn what is important in life, how they areexpected to behave and what role they will play in their world.

剑桥考官在范文中对于平行原则都是严格遵守,考生在这个写作细节句式上希望也可以向官方范文看齐。

诚然,考官的范文中还有其它零星高分语法结构,但以上总结的基本是使用频率比较高但洛阳雅思培训学校考生很少有意识去使用的句式结构,建议考生熟练掌握并积极使用。最后,值得指出的是,无论是考官自己写的范文,还是剑桥真题书上公布的高分范文,都清楚的显示复杂句不是雅思写作高分的必要条件,考生必须对英语的句法有大体的把握,而以上所介绍的几种语法结构对洛阳雅思培训学校考生写句子的能力以及地道表达都有实战指导作用。

洛阳环球雅思培训学校 官方网站:http://luoyang.gedu.org/

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